Russia's insistence on paying for Russian gas in rubles has rattled European countries: Greece held an emergency meeting of suppliers, the Dutch government would urge consumers to use less gas, and the French energy regulator told consumers not to panic. Russian gas meets one-third of Europe's annual energy needs.
Russia said they could expand their demand for ruble payments for other commodities, including oil, grain, fertilizer, coal, and metals, which raised the risk of recession in Europe and the US.
Moscow is expected to unveil its ruble payment plan in early April, but it said it would not immediately ask buyers to pay for gas in rubles.
Western countries have said paying in rubles would be a breach of contract, and renegotiation could take months or longer. This uncertainty has pushed commodity market prices higher.
The supply and prices of other commodities like the titanium carbide could also be affected.
Carbothermal reduction method
TiO2 is reduced by carbon black. The reaction temperature range is 1700-2100℃. The chemical reaction formula is as follows:
TiO2 (s) + 3C (s) = TiC (S) + 2CO (g).
Direct carbonization method
Ti powder reacts with carbon powder to form TiC. The chemical reaction formula is as follows:
Ti (s) + C (s) = TiC
Because it is difficult to prepare submicron metal Ti powder, the application of this method is limited, the above reaction can be completed in 5-20 hours, and the reaction process is difficult to control, and the reactants agglomerate seriously, so it needs further grinding to prepare fine TiC powder. In order to obtain a purer product, the fine powder after ball milling needs to be purified by chemical method.
Chemical vapor deposition
The synthesis is based on the reaction between TiCl4, H2, and C. The reactant reacts with the hot tungsten or carbon monofilament, and the TiC crystal grows directly on the monofilament. The output and sometimes even the quality of the TiC powder synthesized by this method are strictly limited. In addition, due to the strong corrosiveness of TiCl4 and HCl in the product, special caution should be taken in synthesis.
The invention relates to a method for preparing small particle size products by fully mixing and dispersing materials with the help of solution. It has the advantages of good chemical uniformity, small particle size and narrow distribution, low heat treatment temperature, but complex synthesis process and large drying shrinkage.
Using nano-TiO2 and carbon black as raw materials, the material was heated by microwave energy based on the principle of carbothermal reduction reaction. In fact, using the dielectric loss of the material in the high frequency electric field, the microwave energy is converted into thermal energy, and the nano-TiO2 and carbon are synthesized into TiC.
Explosive impact method
Titanium dioxide powder and carbon powder were mixed in a certain proportion, and the precursor was prepared by pressing into a Φ 10mm × 5mm cylinder with a density of 1.5g/cm3, which was packed into a metal confined outer cylinder in the laboratory. The experiment was carried out in a self-made airtight explosion container, and the detonation ash was collected after the action of explosion shock wave. After preliminary screening, large impurities such as iron shavings are removed to get black powder. The black powder turned brown after being soaked in aqua regia for 24 hours, and finally put into muffle furnace and calcined 400min at 400℃ to get silver gray powder.
High frequency induction carbothermal reduction method
The pigment grade titanium dioxide powder and charcoal powder were weighed and mixed at 1:3 and 1:4, then added to the ball milling tank and milled for 6 hours on a planetary ball mill at a rotational speed of 300~400r/min, then the ball milling material was pressed into a 2cm × 2cm~2cm × 4cm block on a pressing machine, and finally the material was loaded into a graphite crucible and put into a high frequency induction heating equipment. Argon gas was used to protect the atmosphere. Gradually adjust the current of the high-frequency induction equipment to 500A to make the material have carbothermal reduction reaction and keep 20min. After the heat preservation, the reduction product is naturally cooled to room temperature in argon atmosphere, and the reduction product is taken out. After grinding and crushing, the ultra-fine titanium carbide powder is obtained.
Metal thermal reduction method
The solid-liquid reaction method is an exothermic reaction, so the reaction temperature is low, the energy consumption is low, but the raw material is more expensive, and the CaO and MgO in the product are pickled and can not be recycled.
High temperature self-propagating synthesis
The SHS method is derived from exothermic reaction. When heated to a proper temperature, the fine Ti powder has very high reaction activity, so once ignited, the combustion wave generated through the reactants Ti and C will have enough heat of reaction to form the TiC, SHS method, usually less than a second. The synthesis method requires high purity and fine Ti powder as raw material, and the output is limited.
Reaction ball milling technique
Reactive ball milling is a technology to prepare the required materials by using the chemical reaction between metal or alloy powder and other elements or compounds in the process of ball milling. The main equipment for preparing nanomaterials by reactive ball milling technology is high energy ball mill, which is mainly used to produce nanocrystalline materials. The mechanism of reactive ball milling can be divided into two types: one is mechanically induced self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction, and the other is reactive ball milling without obvious exothermic reaction, and the reaction process is slow.
Titanium carbide Price
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With Russia taking the lead on Poland and Bulgaria at the end of last month, there appears to be a growing sense of compromise within the EU over whether to accept Moscow's proposed rouble settlement order.
Italy's prime minister said recently that European companies would be able to buy gas in roubles without violating sanctions. This apparently ignores the guidance of hardliners in the EU to "fight to the end".
For weeks, European companies have been trying to find ways to meet Russia's payment demands for the rouble while maintaining vital gas supplies without violating sanctions against Moscow.
Late last month, European Commission President Von der Leyen said operating under the mechanism would violate sanctions and asked European companies not to bow to Russian demands. However, the EU has yet to issue more rigorous written guidelines on how companies should pay Gazprom.
The Italian prime minister said recently, "There is no official announcement from the European Union about what ruble settlement means for sanctions violations, and no one has said whether ruble payments violate sanctions or not. It's a grey area."
"In fact, most gas importers are already opening rouble accounts for deals with Gazprom,"
He also used German companies as a shield. He said Germany's largest gas importer had already paid in rubles. "In fact, we saw evidence yesterday that the largest gas importer in Germany has already paid in rubles."
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